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Is playing fantasy football a form of gambling?

m88 เข้าไม่ได้ But did I win a lot due to talent or due to luck? That is the heart of the gambling query involving fantasy football and my answer is nonetheless it really is 50% luck and 50% skill.

Legally, although, playing fantasy sports is not deemed a form of gambling in the United States. But is the income exchanging hands by way of gambling? As someone who utilised to play fantasy football a lot the answer is devoid of query yes playing fantasy football is a form of gambling to me.

Is playing fantasy football a kind of gambling? This is a quite genuine query due to the fact it is estimated that some $1.2 billion changed hands final year between players in fantasy football leagues. Alternatively, playing fantasy sports is thought of a game of skill.

Fantasy football does involve skill, but it also includes luck. I played fantasy football for 10 years and won eight championships such as 4 in a league with a first-location prize of over $1,000. Ultimately, although, for the reason that funds is exchanging hands more than the final results of the stats that NFL players accumulate every week, fantasy football is a kind of gambling. Who can predict when Marshawn Lynch is going to go down with an injury early in a game and ruin his owners chances of winning? Who can predict when a ego-maniac coach will not give Marshawn Lynch the ball on the objective-line for what would practically definitely be a go-ahead touchdown to win the Super Bowl?

I’d still be playing these days but the league with the large payouts went beneath in no compact portion since the other owners were tired of me winning. Everyday fantasy sports organization FanDuel took in $81.5 million in the fourth quarter (for the duration of the NFL football season) last year mostly from people playing fantasy football.

It can also be a ton of fun on Sundays watching the players on your team play in the NFL and wrack up stats and fantasy points for your team. So I was quite great at it and I made a lot far more dollars than I ever place into the pools. Wagering on any type of sporting event like the NFL is really uncertain and is definitely a type of gambling. The definition of gambling is to play games of chance for income.

Putting cash on the line with other people today based upon who has the team that wracks up the most fantasy points primarily based upon how NFL players do is surely a game of chance. But as someone who was pretty great at fantasy football, I’d generally say fantasy football was 50% luck and 50% ability.

So huge dollars is exchanging hands by way of fantasy football at http://thai-m88.com

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David Beckham turns 40 – why booze and gambling?

m88 เข้าไม่ได้ He should really stick to that — there’s no need to hyperlink himself to extraneous products or solutions.”

Beckham’s representatives insist the partnership with Las Vegas Sands is mainly about assisting establish the group as a travel location when the hyperlink with Diageo reflects the former England international’s appeal to mature fathers rather than teenagers.

The other half of Brand Beckham, broadly credited for turning her husband from soccer’s shy boy-prodigy into a pioneering “metrosexual,” is now garnering serious respect in the style planet.

Having discovered pop fame in the ’90s as pouty Posh in the Spice Girls, she has reinvented herself as a designer, and in December 2013 was guest editor for the French edition of style bible Vogue.

“They are a brilliant composite brand, Posh and Becks,” says British society commentator Peter York. franchise is an extension of his playing career,” he says.

York says club ownership could expose Beckham to “fantastically dodgy third-raters who are there to exploit folks in silly bargains” but that he and his wife have generally been “incredibly good” at getting the ideal individuals to advise them. “He’s completed every thing commercial you can do in sport except personal a team.”

Fynn hopes the franchise will be extra profitable than Beckham’s soccer academies in London and Los Angeles, which closed inside five years of their 2005 launch.

“Possibly not sufficient care and interest was offered to the idea for it to be effective,” he says.

The expansion franchise has twice been denied in its plans to locate a downtown venue for a new stadium, and its entry date into the MLS has yet to be confirmed.

“The next two or three years are therefore probably to be an acid test of just how proficient Beckham is as an entrepreneur, leader and manager,” adds Chadwick.

What is not in doubt is Beckham’s location among the entertainment elite.

“It was the epitome of the metrosexual male: ambitious and effective superior husband and father sexy and properly dressed sensitive and caring even though remaining masculine.

“But as his tribulations in Florida demonstrate, his reputation as a player alone is unlikely to sustain him in the long term when it comes to the harsh realities of business enterprise.”

Beckham’s bid to set up a new Key League Soccer franchise in Miami, produced achievable by a $25 million clause in his playing contract when he joined Los Angeles Galaxy in 2007, has been beset by delays considering the fact that it was announced 14 months ago.

In spite of the delays, the Beckham camp are confident they’re close to finalizing an investor group and that by 2018 the Miami franchise will be up and running.

Fynn believes it is the ideal move for Beckham, in contrast to operating with a casino group — “which really should be resisted.”

“The MLS is a thriving operation, football in America is growing at club and national team level, and the chance of becoming involved in a U.S. An extraordinary self-confidence.

“When he began off, he was a celebrity endorser — but mainly because most of the attributes that he personifies have been so optimistic, he was able to come to be a brand in himself,” says Fynn, who has been a marketing and advertising and media consultant to top rated sports teams and ruling bodies because leaving Saatchi in the mid-’90s.

“It really is a good difficulty when you go into regions that are not related to your distinct location of competence or renown. He will reportedly fly his mates — including Hollywood heavyweight and fellow motorbike aficionado Tom Cruise — to Morocco for his birthday celebrations.

As the old saying goes, “Life begins at 40.”

Only time will inform if that proves to be true for Brand Beckham.

What do you believe of Beckham’s new projects? Have your say on CNN Sport’s Facebook web page.

.

“He did not made use of to — he was just a good-hunting footballer who wore nice-seeking footballer suits — then he became this heavily-inked, significantly-undressed individual. It can take a long time and a lot of funds, and there’s a lot of competitors in that industry.”

Nevertheless, Fynn believes Beckham is a ideal fit for the Chinese marketplace if he sticks to football and is not being used by the national federation — which has cracked down on corruption at all levels in current years — to “cover up previous errors.”

“They really like Premier League football and despite the fact that it’s some years considering that he played in the Premier League, he’s linked with the best of English football,” says Fynn, who also writes soccer books, most lately 2014′s “Arsene and Arsenal.”

“Much more than that, he’s a planet superstar more than and above his limited playing capacity. They’ve turn into very a lot more figuring out, really considerably more elegant.

“The great thing is, they are hitting 40, you have got to do items a unique way,” adds York, co-author of the influential aspirational guide “The Official Sloane Ranger Handbook” and writer of the lately released “Authenticity is a Con.”

“You’ve got to be in a position to transition into things that are a bit extra solid and not just about singing or showing your body off. “It’s really difficult to crack China.

“He defined a new sort of athlete brand which, even now, has however to be duplicated in the very same way — the likes of Cristiano Ronaldo just have not been in a position to duplicate the brand proposition that Beckham has been now for just about two decades.”

Nevertheless, it is now time for the ex-Manchester United and England star to develop “Beckham Mark II,” says Chadwick, an upgrade which “moves him on from the ‘Class of ’92,’ the Spice Girls and Genuine Madrid.”

“I consider he’s nevertheless largely trading on the equity of his ‘Beckham Mark I’ incarnation.

Career opportunitiesVictoria’s Spice Girls profession was groomed by pop Svengali Simon Fuller, the “American Idol” creator whose 19 Entertainment agency has been largely responsible for shaping David’s monetary fortunes.

With Fuller’s guidance, Beckham — as nicely as attempting to make a hit of the niche Haig Club whiskey — is now developing his own-branded goods and partnering with retailers such as H&ampM.

“The Beckham brand captured the early 21st-century zeitgeist, which played out effectively across the globe,” says Chadwick. He has core values which are so significantly far more widespread than most celebrities. He knows what he’s doing at every single point, in the way that an individual who’s a expert model does, and much more. He didn’t speak Estuary (a refined southern English accent), he talked cockney — ‘we was, you was.’ Now he can hold his personal on a platform.

“Mainly because of that, since he’s far more able to express himself, you know that really he’s quite canny,” adds York, who in August will execute a new 1-man event, “A Show for the Nicer Variety of Particular person,” at the Edinburgh Fringe festival.

“He’s learned to vamp a camera like a model does, how to use his physique, how to be happily objectified and make income from it. “They’re in Hollywood and Holland Park. It is like getting an actor or model, you have to find out intense intelligent self-consciousness.”

Miami acid testThe Miami venture — in which Beckham is a co-owner with Fuller and Bolivian businessman Marcelo Claure — could be vital to the future of the family brand.

“It would give them a way of transitioning into early middle age in a correct way,” says York.

“He is nevertheless very popular and is presumably capable to continue drawing upon the revenue opportunities that have been produced through his playing days. and Asia amongst its resorts — as he beat his earlier high of $51 million.

“I never consider it’s a fantastic move,” says former Saatchi and Saatchi advertising executive Alex Fynn, who believes father-of-four Beckham must stick to what made him so common in the initial location — sports, fashion and household-oriented entertainment. If you go back to the influence he had at Paris Saint-Germain, he was only a bit-element player but he gave the club a sense of credibility and reputation that had hitherto been lacking.”

‘Extreme intelligent self-consciousness’York believes the Beckhams have shown more than the years they have the expertise to adapt to new challenges.

“When he started, British footballers weren’t identified for getting very articulate, but he was especially inarticulate — individuals talked about him as if he was stupid,” York explains.

“Even although he was living a contemporary life, he seemed to be element of the old cockney world. If he isn’t to become the new Pele of his era — signing what ever lucrative deal comes his way — then Beckham and his advisers will need to make a more compelling, modern and relevant brand proposition,” Chadwick claims.

“For the first time in several years, I assume Brand Beckham lacks clarity and concentrate.”

As proof of that strategic inconsistency, Chadwick points to Beckham’s perform at the 2012 Olympics and the UN, which positioned him as a sports diplomat, although his MLS project suggests he desires to be a sports entrepreneur.

“The dilemma is, he can not be every little thing to everybody, and he (and his advisers) for that reason require to produce a clear, tightly-defined and nicely-accentuated brand proposition in the same way as the Beckham of 10 years ago was,” adds Chadwick.

It really is an argument that is rejected by Beckham’s folks who point to a coherent approach constructed about Beckham as a inventive director in advertising a number of brands, his function at Miami, as nicely as his ever rising charity work, which he views as a important portion of the legacy he wants to leave for his young children.

Earlier this year Beckham launched a charitable collaboration with UNICEF — the world’s top organisation for children — offering assistance to kids in danger zones across the globe.

“My number one particular priority is the ’7′ fund,” Beckham told CNN at the launch in London.

Just the BecksWhile Beckham has been criticized for his associations with gambling and alcohol — although curiously a British advertising requirements physique ruled he is no longer regarded a part model for children when rejecting a viewer complaint — he has produced further inroads into the Asian market place.

As well as being the face of Sands China, which has casino operations in Macau amongst its divisions, in 2013 he signed a multimillion-dollar deal to become a goodwill ambassador for the Chinese Super League.

“I believe it’s a risky factor,” says York. He after sported a Jean-Paul Gaultier sarong, but now his catwalk appearances are far more probably to be in assistance of wife Victoria’s blossoming style design and style career, as he dons classic suits befitting the increased status of his company ventures.

Beckham reportedly earns more since his 2013 retirement from football than when he was a extremely-paid player at some of the world’s most significant clubs.

David Beckham turns 40 on Saturday, getting into a new era in the metamorphosis of his unbelievable earning power.

But has the man dubbed “Golden Balls” reached as well far away from his core values with a couple of his most recent ventures, advertising alcohol — as a player he usually insisted he was not a drinker — and becoming related with a casino chain?

He took residence $75 million in the past year according to a 2015 Forbes list of non-active athletes, assisting launch a niche single-grain whiskey with drinks giant Diageo and partnering Las Vegas Sands — which has gambling operations in the U.S. The only danger is becoming spread too thin.”

But can Beckham, a man whose tattooed, close to-naked physique has been posted on giant marketing billboards around the planet, be taken seriously as a business leader in his personal proper?

“To a specific extent, I feel Beckham is presently ‘lost in transition,’” says British sports business enterprise specialist Simon Chadwick. He knows his way about http://hhht888.com

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tricks to win at baccarat?

fun88 เข้าไม่ได้ Where is the rational behind thinking a randomly shuffled shoe of eight decks is going to stick to distinct patterns? .

So despite the fact that you could see every person around you marking down numbers, take it as entertaining business, but do not be fooled into participating. There are not any. The odds are stacked in favor of the property, but only to the tune of a few percentage points. These persons are pattern chasing, or pattern spotting.

Here are some notes from http://www.marxthespot.com/bert_baccarat… You may ask why. Think about it, would the casinos provide every person with a pencil and chart if they had been actually worth anything?”

Individuals do the identical issue with lottery numbers, which is even crazier!

“The first point you notice about baccarat at land based casinos, is that pretty much everybody at the table is tracking the benefits of every single hand on scorecards. It really is a game of pure chance, like tossing a coin.

Very just they are seeking for patterns in the outcomes of the hands. If so you could be intelligent! There is no rhyme or reason to use pattern spotting as a baccarat tactic, it’s simply superstition.

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How the Sports Betting Line is Made by RJ Bell

That is not the case at all – their intent is NOT to evenly split the ATS result between the teams; rather, their goal is to attract equal betting action on both sides. By necessity their approach is very research-oriented and concise, since with millions of dollars at risk there is little margin for error. Oddsmakers have to determine if any changes are necessary and send out an “adjusted line.”

The purpose of these adjustments, like all line adjustments, is to more equally divide the betting action. Each of these oddsmakers bring unique opinions, strengths and weaknesses to the process. “We’re not trying to pick the team that covers the spread, we’re trying to make it a coin flip, a tough decision (for the bettor).

Once betting begins, sportsbooks can adjust the line at any time. The power ratings are adjusted after each game a team plays. Of course there is an entire method to the madness on how the opening line is created.

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

Divided action means the sportsbook is guaranteed a profit on the game because of the fee charged to the bettor (called juice or vig – typically $11 bet to win $10). If we’ve done that, we’ve done our job.”

Contributed by:

A round-table discussion among the 4-5 oddsmakers involved in making the line for each sport is then conducted and a consensus line is decided upon by the Odds Director before it is released to the sportsbooks.

Once a game’s power rating based pointspread is determined, the oddsmaker will make adjustments to that line after considering each team’s most recent games played and previous games played against that opponent.

For example, if the pointspread on a game is 7 and most of the money is coming in on the underdog (taking the +7), sportsbooks will then move the number down to 6 ½ to try and attract money on the favorite. In our extended interview, Seba explained that there are 4-5 oddsmakers assigned to make lines for each of the major sports (pro & college football and basketball; MLB, NHL, boxing, golf).

Oddsmakers can also change the line depending on various event-related factors such as player injuries or weather.

What Is the Line Trying to Accomplish?

Once the opening line is released by LVSC, the individual sportsbooks decide if they want to make any adjustments before offering it to the public. If an oddsmaker comes up with a preliminary line of USC -7, then an adjustment up to -7.5 or -8 would be made in response to the public’s expected USC bias. Also, adjustments are made after reading each team’s local newspapers to get a sense of what the coaches & players are thinking going into the game.

Since the oddsmaker’s ultimate goal is equally dividing the betting action, public perception and betting patterns must be taken into account.

Oddsmakers at LVSC are professional sports junkies who love what they do and would probably do it for nothing if you asked them, but they do get paid for it. Seba explained that it all starts with each oddsmaker creating a line on each game based upon their own personal approach. Of the 4-5 oddsmakers, generally the 2 most respected opinions are weighed more heavily by the Odds Director before he decides on the final line. People think it’s much more complicated, but it’s not.”

Why the Line Changes

“You either have a passion for it or you don’t,” Seba said.

Experts working for the individual books having a strong opinion on the game

Individual books having players who consistently bet with certain tendencies (such as an extreme bias toward favorites or toward a certain popular team like USC)

The last step in the line-making process for each oddsmaker is taking one final look to determine whether or not the line “feels right.” This is where common sense and past experience with how games are bet enters into the picture.

There is a common misconception that point spreads represent the oddsmakers’ prediction of how many points the favorite will win by.

“The main objective is that our clients get equal action on both sides,” Seba said. We do this by drawing from past experiences and applying them to current situations. In doing so they attempt to make more attractive the team that is getting less action. Mike Seba is a Senior Oddsmaker at LVSC and has been making lines for the last six years. .

The opening line is the first line created by the oddsmakers, which is then sent out to sportsbooks.

How the Opening Line Is Made

Moving the line is the oddsmaker’s effort to balance betting action, and often times such moves can have a major impact on a bettor’s decision. Reasons for such adjustments include:

Las Vegas Sports Consultants (LVSC) is the world’s premier oddsmaking company and the most respected authority on making the lines. This usually includes having up-to-date power ratings on each team. Stated another way, they want to create a line that half the people find appealing to bet one way while the other half find it appealing to bet the other way (known as ‘dividing the action’). For example, the public might have heavy betting interest week after week on a popular college football team such as USC. Examples of non-game factors that would require an adjustment to a team’s power rating are key player injuries and player trades.

“The #1 thing for us is to make a line for each game that creates good two-way action. By moving the line, sportsbooks can influence how the public bets on a particular game.

Power ratings are the oddsmaker’s value of each team and are used as a guide to calculate a “preliminary” pointspread on an upcoming game. Obviously, if the line comes out a week ahead of the event (which is the case in football), there is much that could happen during the week leading up to the event that could affect the line

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Las Vegas Casinos – InfoBarrel

At least they

have not changed the sweet shape f the pyramid.

Regardless of where you want to gamble

in Las Vegas you can always find something cool, tacky, common, rare,

expensive, cheap, or even dirt cheap. Many people now days consider the New York New

York Hotel and Casino to be slightly on the tacky side. Regardless of your budget you can find

somewhere fun and unique to gamble while visiting Las Vegas.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino

was considered a truly amazing architecture and styling casino when

it was first opened. It is by the Circus Circus Hotel and Casino.

Slots-A-Fun Casino has many low limit table games including $1.00

blackjack. Just because you may want to

visit an expensive Las Vegas Casino that does not mean you have to

play there.

Gold Spike Hotel and Casino

At night time the Palms Casino and

Resort is an absolutely gorgeous building. There are always exceptions and some great deals can be

found for the Las Vegas Strip hotels and casinos during non peak

The Slots-A-Fun Casino is located on

The Las Vegas Strip. $2.00 Blackjack is

only available occasionally. (readers or lookers?) The show is adult oriented

so don’t take Paul “Pee Wee” Reubens with you.

Image Credit: (Flickr/davideferro.net) (Flickr/Chad Davis)

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino has

some lower limit tables such as $2.00 Blackjack. You may have seen the Palms Casino and Resort on

television. I love the

7-11 stores for gambling.

The Palms Casino and Resort is a

favorite of Britney Spears when she visits Las Vegas. Angelica Bridges starred on Baywatch and is also a favorite

of Playboy readers. Slots-A-Fun Casino is a fun place to gamble cheaply if you

go there during a slow time. They usually have some video gaming machines. When you are speeding up to the

top layer it looks and feels like you are flying of the edge of the

building onto the roller coaster. I wonder when

Britney plays blackjack and wants another card if she tells the

Blackjack dealer “Hit Me Baby One More Time.” After all of

Britney’s kids I think she was hit again.

7-11

Palms Casino and Resort

New York New York Hotel and Casino

If you choose to stay at the Gold Spike

Hotel and Casino during you vacation to Las Vegas you will be well

rewarded with your choice of location. I disagree.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino is all of the fun of the real

New York but a lot cheaper. When the Slots-A-Fun Casino is empty of locals and

tourists then it is a very fun place to gamble in Las Vegas. Downtown Las Vegas is much funner and generally cheaper then staying on the

Vegas Strip. If you do want to see the Strip

you are a very short bus ride away. The roller coaster is fun…to watch. The Palms Casino and Resort has been the site of many TV

shows. On a Sunday when there are only a few cars in there

you can drive your car to the top.

If you visit the Palms Casino and

Resort make sure your bring your camera so you can take a picture of

the Paparazzi who may be there outside snapping pictures of the rich

and famous when they arrive at the Palms Casino and Resort.

In 2007 they replace most of the

Egyptian themed items and decorations. What other gaming property in Las Vegas can

offer you a Slurpee? The fact that I can play video poker with bad

odds and drink blue colored Slurpee’s all day makes the 7-11

convenience stores an awesome Las Vegas gaming property.

I am a huge fan of the downtown Vegas

properties but this strip property make my list. I did once when it was 108 degrees and the

soles on my shoes were soft from the hot asphalt and concrete

literally melting my shoe soles away.

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino is

located in my favorite part of Las Vegas. The first is the shape of the

building. You can find $1.00 black jack or $1,000 black jack tables.

From the high rollers VIP areas in fancy Vegas Casinos to the smoky

keno rooms with ragged carpet. You are right down by the

Fremont Light Show and all of the casinos and sites located in the

downtown area of historic Las Vegas. It is modeled after the gr

eat pyramids of Egypt. Do not

attend the Slots-A-Fun Casino on a weekend or any other time the

place is busy. The rich and famous

come to the Palms Casino and Resort to be seen by the middle class

tourists. The

parking garage at the New York New York Hotel and Casino is my

favorite ride. If the Aliens

ever come to play poker they will probably come to the Luxor Hotel

and Casino.. If it is summertime and over 100 degrees I highly suggest you

do not walk the strip. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino is really cool for two reasons. I have

never been inside the Palms Casino and Resort except for when I see

this Vegas Hotel on television.

While visiting the Luxor Hotel and

Casino make sure you get tickets to the show starring Angelica

Bridges. If you want a tattoo they have a shop inside.

There are many casinos in Las Vegas

Nevada. If it is

not a slow night then do not even bother to show up to the

Slots-A-Fun Casino.

times.

Luxor Hotel and Casino

The 7-11 convenience stores in Las

Vegas are everywhere. $3.00 Black Jack is the favorite game of

many people in Las Vegas. The 7-11 stores are not considered a casino to

most people. The other

reason the Luxor Hotel and Casino is so cool is because of the huge

light beaming out from the top of the Luxor into space. Fremont Street. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino of today appears much different then the magnificent building

that was originally there. I assume the

inside of the Palms Casino and Resort is just as beautiful. The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino also has a

sports book inside called “Leroy’s Sports book”.

Slots-A-Fun Casino

The Palms Casino and Resort is where

the middle class come to see the rich and famous. It is a popular spot for

amateur photographers to snap a world class picture. During peak nights the Slots-A-Fun

Casino is packed with people wanting to play low limit games. The appearance is drastically different,.

The Luxor Hotel and Casino has changed from an Egyptian theme to a

corporate owned casino filled with gimmicky adverting. I wish they would have kept

the Egyptian theme at the Luxor Hotel and Casino. You can also walk if you are not lazy

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Horse Racing Systems: 5 That Work

This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.

This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.

Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.

First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.

In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.

Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!

Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.

Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.

Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.

None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.

Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.

In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.

Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.

Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.

For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.

However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. None of them work.

. My study suggests that’s not the case.

For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.

How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.

Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.

The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.

In that spirit

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Gambling | Buzzle.com

With so many…

Reasons Why Gambling Should Be Illegal

Why gambling should be illegal

What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.

. Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that. How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling.

Impact of Internet Gambling

So many of us are attracted to gambling online.

Internet Gambling Facts and Problems

What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.

Negative Effects of Gambling

Gambling is bad

Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive

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Negative Effects of Gambling

Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. The two go hand in hand. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. ? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.

? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? Gambling has proven to be addictive. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting

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The Best Casinos for Blackjack in Las Vegas

If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South. Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.

. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.

The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.

Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play. Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible

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BETBLOG – your betting blog online

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LIMSO ORG: Your Betting Guide To Europe Soccer

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BETBLOG is your path to the quality of betting.We are doing our best to provide you as much help as possible

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Casino-Gaming :: Casino Cruises | ArticleBiz.com

However if you had had enough of gambling, you can go to other wing of the ship and relish different amusement programs there.

In comparison to daytime cruises are overnight ones that usually happen on large cruise lines. The adults who board these pricey cruise liners especially to gamble should prefer to leave their children at home and celebrate an ideal escape. These companies take good care of everything, your entertainment, well-being and comfort. Eminent companies not just offer delightful gambling but also several other amenities with it. But since gambling often entails serious repercussions, many states do permit neither gambling nor casinos. These cruise liners are hubs of entertainment, one of its best form being ‘casino’. No doubt at present it is the hottest pick in the gambling world.

Besides these several other companies promise incredible enjoyment in terms of trips that last for a complete weekend. For instance most casino cruise companies offer day trips while several others present overnight trips. Apart from immense boozing and gambling, the greatest shortcoming of these overnight cruises is their expense. .

Casino cruises combine the zeal for gambling with the wonderful desire to drift on huge water bodies and experience perfect tranquility, caressing nature from everywhere. As the time ends, all players have to make a move, be it in an unsolicited mood. are swarming with gamblers who come from nearby states to enjoy. These casinos offer ample of time to gamble and enjoy. In these states, the casinos are placed on boats that can sail into international waters to operate. Casino cruises are a timeless source of entertainment and means to a perfect vacation. These cruises are an absolute and perfect vacation in them. Due to this the casinos of some well-known places such as Florida, Louisiana, Texas, New York etc.

Prior to opting for a casino cruise, it is always better to consider the company that is running the casino. In order to know the repute of a company, you can consult your friends, family and also check up with the Better Business Bureau. Besides gambling, day cruises are ideal for short and unperturbed evenings.

Due to it’s all round entertainment in terms of gaming and voyage, the charisma of casino cruises is at a surge these days.

Day cruises are a matter of four to five hours out of which one hour is spent in floating down to international waters. Since the day casino cruises offer limited time to gamble, it saves the players from spending lot of money and running into debts. These cruises are highly expensive and so not within everyone’s reach. Depending upon the needs and desires of gaming aficionados, there are different casino cruises available these days. But on the same hand it runs the risk of many gamblers going bankrupt. There are also chances of disputes and quarrels. Usually the day trips are functional throughout the week while some companies offer trips that run only on weekends

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AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

This makes little sense. 

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Less Than Zero

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Ground Zero

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

Omega Man

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

But, it doesn’t end there. 

The Road to Zero

Dr.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Mr. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

AIDS now had a face.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

From a front-line perspective

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen.  

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Gateway to the West

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. It was so unusual at the time . 1952-1953).

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Air Canada

Update note:Dr. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Louis. 

***

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. . Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

False Positive

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role

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